Nice Natural Cures photos

A few nice natural cures images I found:

Of Plenty and Paucity: Civil War Medicines and Their Makers Exhibit
natural cures
Image by W&M Libraries
Shown here is an image from the exhibit "Of Plenty and Paucity: Civil War Medicines and Their Makers," on display in the Nancy Marshall Gallery just outside the Special Collections Research Center on the first floor of Swem Library at the College of William & Mary. This exhibit is part of "From Fights to Rights: The Long Road to a More Perfect Union," Swem Library’s project to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Civil War and the 50th anniversary of the Civil Rights Movement. The exhibit is on display from October 28, 2011 through April 16, 2012.

The following is a transcription of the label text presented in this exhibit.

Apothecary scales, circa 1860s

The pharmacist would weigh out the ingredients on
apothecary scales, using the appropriate weights, and mix the ingredients as instructed. These scales are hand-held and would typically have been used in the field. Sometimes, the doctor only included the main ingredients and left it to the pharmacist to
determine what diluting agents or excipients to use.

SCRC Exhibit Collection

Cassimere Churchill to Sister
Washington, D.C., 1862

Cassimere Churchill of the 9th New York Cavalry disliked quinine, which had a very bitter taste, and refused to take it.

Cassimere Churchill Papers, Mss. 2008.042

Orders of the Medical Department, C.S.A.
Petersburg, Virginia, 1862-1863

Recognizing the supply issues early in the War, the
Confederate medical department ordered stewards to purchase botanical medical supplies locally, as seen in the price list for herbs from the records of the Confederate hospital at Petersburg.

Civil War Collection, Mss. 39.1 C76

Medical supply invoice
Richmond, Virginia, 1864
Digital Reproduction

Unlike the Union forces, the Confederacy suffered
severe shortages, although quinine was on the supply list for Chimborazo Hospital in Richmond.

Civil War Collection, Mss. 39.1 C76

Medicine bottle, circa 1860s

Quinine was typically served in liquid form, mixed with whiskey, in bottles much like the one on display here, which would have been corked.

SCRC Exhibit Collection

Carte de visite of Richard and Celia Morgan
circa 1860s
Digital reproduction

Military pass
Camp Douglas, Chicago, Illnois, 1862

Richard and Celia Morgan Papers, Mss. 2010.237

Richard Morgan to Celia Morgan
Camp Butler, Springfield, Illnois, 1865

Pharmacists could do their work in a variety of locations from camps and hospitals to the field. Swem Library has a small number of papers relating to Richard Morgan, a Union apothecary at the post hospital at Camp Butler. In an 1865 letter to his estranged wife Celia, he described filling prescriptions all day and examining highly-contagious patients. He also boasted of having the keys to the liquor cabinet, a fact unlikely to amuse Celia, who had left him because of his drinking. Alcohol was a key ingredient in liquid medicines.

Richard and Celia Morgan Papers, Mss. 2010.237

Mortar and pestle, circa 1860s

Stewards used large metal mortars and pestles to pound chopped, dried herbs or vegetables used for medicines into smaller particles. They used smaller porcelain mortars and pestles to create and mix powders.

SCRC Exhibit Collection

Prescription ledger, 1863-1864

This prescription ledger belonged to Captain Edward Restieaux, a Boston druggist who was
assistant quartermaster of the 2nd Division of the 5th Army Corps in Washington. The record he kept for himself in the ledger did not include all the parts of a prescription.

Edward Restieaux Ledger, Mss. 2011.412

Quinine: The Miracle Drug

Quinine sulfate, made from a derivate of the bark of the
cinchona tree, was probably the favorite drug of Civil War surgeons. They used it to treat a great variety of ailments from fevers to stomachaches to lack of energy.

Cinchona did not grow in the United States, which in the 19th century imported supplies of the bark from Peru. Dogwood and other barks proved ineffective
substitutes, and Confederate soldiers died from malaria at much greater rates than Union soldiers.

Most soldiers accepted quinine as a treatment and
energizer. Researchers later discovered that quinine is not nearly as effective as was commonly believed during the Civil War. It is, however, useful in treating malaria, a problem that plagued soldiers serving in the swamps and lowlands of the South.

Reading a Prescription

A complete prescription would include:
1.Rx: an abbreviation of the Latin for recipe
2.In Latin, a list of ingredients (often abbreviated) and the quantities of each, using the apothecary measures followed by lower-case Roman numerals:
Joseph Janvier Woodward

The Hospital Steward’s Manual
Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1862, 280
3.In Latin, directions for how to mix together the
ingredients and prepare them for the patient
4.In English, directions for how the patient should take the prescription

Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests
Richmond, Virginia: West and Johnson, 1863

The Confederate Surgeon-General’s office
produced Resources of the Southern Fields and Forests to guide surgeons and stewards in making the best use possible of the South’s natural resources.

Rare Books: SB108 .U6 S76 1863

Ambrotype of Rufus Robbins, Jr., circa 1860s
Digital reproduction

Rufus Robbins, Jr. to Mother
Carver Hospital, Washington, D.C., 1862

Rufus Robbins, Jr., of the 7th Massachusetts
Volunteer Infantry, swallowed his surgeon’s
prescription of quinine mixed with magnesia.

Rufus Robbins, Jr. Papers, Mss. 2009.025

U.S. Sanitary Commission Bulletin
New York, New York, 1864

The North usually had ample supplies of quinine, as seen in the list of supplies issued at the Union depot at Norfolk in 1863.

Civil War Collection, Mss. 39.1 C76

Southern Shortages

Shortages of drugs plagued Confederate stewards. The United States traditionally had imported some key drugs, including opium and quinine. The Union blockade of Southern seaports and efforts to prevent overland smuggling caused severe shortages of these drugs in the South by late 1863. Even for drugs that the South was able to produce, transportation and communication problems meant that stewards in Confederate hospitals and military units frequently could not obtain what they needed.

Despite the Confederate pharmacists’ best efforts, drug
shortages were a severe problem during the later years of the War. No adequate substitute based on local botanicals was found for many drugs. However, some of the local substitutes did treat symptoms, even if they did not cure the underlying diseases.

From the Special Collections Research Center, Earl Gregg Swem Library at the College of William and Mary. See for further information and assistance.

Image from page 380 of “Thus shalt thou live : hints and advice for the healthy and the sick on a simple and rational mode of life and a natural method of cure” (1894)
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Image by Internet Archive Book Images
Identifier: thusshaltthouliv00knei
Title: Thus shalt thou live : hints and advice for the healthy and the sick on a simple and rational mode of life and a natural method of cure
Year: 1894 (1890s)
Authors: Kneipp, Sebastian, 1821-1897
Subjects: Hydrotherapy Health Naturopathy Hygiene Hydrotherapy
Publisher: Kempten (Bavaria) : Jos. Koesel
Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine
Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

View Book Page: Book Viewer
About This Book: Catalog Entry
View All Images: All Images From Book

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

Text Appearing Before Image:
done on wet stones in the back-kitchen). 2) Every day two upper-showers. 3) Every second day a double folded piece of clothdipped in equal quantities of water and vinegar is tobe tied on the abdomen for an hour and a half and re-newed after three quarters of an hour as indicated inthis book. 4) Take every day half a tea spoonful of chalk-dustand a cup of tea from St. Johns-wort, fennel and worm-wood in three portions, cold or warm. This treatmentto be continued for three weeks. The young mans diet consisted of strengtheningsoup and plain household fare. Spirits were not allowed. Health kuined by a Bad Liee. 357 After three weeks his whole condition was improved.For the complete recovery of his health, he went ontaking every week three sitz-baths and three hip-bathsfrom half a minute to a minute. Walking on wet ground drew the excessive heat fromthe head downward. The upper-showers had a revivingand invigorating action, the tea and the chalk-dust im-proved the juices and the digestion.

Text Appearing After Image:
■*^:-^^Mh«***^ rS>- Miscellaneons Remarks. 1. Arnica. (German Leopards Bane.) 1 once asked a doctor what he thought of herbs ascurative agencies. Nothing at all, was the reply. Iasked him again whether, in his opinion, arnica mightnot have some sanative virtue. The doctor gave me thisanswer: That plant especially is worthless, it is no longerofficinal, although the greatest swindle is still carried onwith it. This declaration set me thinking, for whatpeople esteem the least is very frequently the best. Ayear ago, I received a letter from another physician ask-ing me w^hy I had never written in favour of arnica,since this herb had such an extraordinary healing power;he requested me, in case I should not know its medici-nal qualities, to test and recommend its use in my book asthe plant deserved. He inclosed even a little pamphlettreating on the great healing powers of arnica. I was in-deed well aware of its value in therapeutics, but induced bythis doctors warm recommendation, T

Note About Images
Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability – coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Pa amb Sobrassada
natural cures
Image by Juan Antonio Capó
La sobrasada (del mallorquín sobrassada) es un embutido crudo curado, elaborado a partir de carnes seleccionadas del cerdo, condimentadas con sal, pimentón y pimienta negra. Se embute en tripa y presenta una lenta maduración.
Este producto es tradicional de Mallorca y las Islas Baleares, y está protegido con el sello de Indicación Geográfica. En la cocina mallorquina tradicional, la sobrasada suele consumirse el mismo día de matanza o poco después: tostada en invierno, o untada en pan y cruda en verano. Aunque pueden durar varios años en un lugar seco, lo habitual es consumir la longaniza durante el primer invierno, la sobrasada en verano, y las más grandes cuando se hace la matanza del año siguiente.
Este producto surge a partir de la necesidad de guardar los alimentos durante largos periodos de tiempo, utilizando las técnicas del salado para embutir carne picada. El origen de su nombre se encuentra en Sicilia, donde se practicaba una técnica conocida como sopressa, que significa "picado", aplicado a la carne para embutir. De esta zona, pasó a la península Ibérica gracias al comercio marítimo, y de Valencia se expandió hasta Mallorca, donde ve su mayor desarrollo a partir del siglo XVI.
Aunque en las primeras sobrasadas se prima el cerdo, al poco tiempo se introduce el uso de pimentón como signo distintivo para la conservación de los alimentos, ya que la carne adquiere su color rojo característico. Con el paso del tiempo el proceso de elaboración se perfecciona, y en 1993 el Gobierno balear reconoce la Denominación Específica para la sobrasada mallorquina. En 1996, la Unión Europea le otorga el sello de Indicación Geográfica.
Cada familia y pueblo elaboraba su propia receta en base a sus costumbres y peculiaridades al ser un producto de matanza. Sin embargo, existen unas características específicas reguladas por la Denominación Específica mallorquina: un 60% de carne magra por un 30%-40% de tocino, 20-30 gramos de sal por kilo de pasta, 60 gramos de pimentón por kilo, y pimienta picante u otras especias al gusto de cada uno. Cuando es más grasa, suele tener más pimentón. El alimento es natural, por lo que la Denominación de origen prohibe expresamente el uso de colorantes.
El proceso consta de dos fases diferenciadas. En la primera se elabora el propio embutido, que consta de las etapas de picado de la carne de cerdo, mezclada con los otros ingredientes y el embutido en las tripas. En la segunda, se produce la maduración y desecado del producto.
El picado tradicional se hacía a mano pero con la mejora de la producción se realiza mecánicamente, con una máquina trituradora programada para lograr partículas inferiores a los 6 milímetros. Después, la carne es sazonada y se le añaden las especias. La masa se embute en las tripas, y se somete a un proceso de curación en los secaderos.
Una vez finalizado, la sobrasada se presenta en forma de longaniza con una textura untuosa. En relación a las características de la tripa o el envase utilizado se distinguen las siguientes presentaciones de Sobrasada de Mallorca: longaniza, rizada, semirizada, cular, bufeta, bisbe, poltrú o tarrina.
Sobrassada is a raw, cured sausage from the Balearic Islands made with ground pork, paprika and salt and other spices. Sobrassada, along with botifarró are traditional Majorcan sausage meat products prepared in the laborious but festive rites that still mark the autumn and winter pig slaughter in Majorca. The chemical principle that makes sobrassada is the dehydration of meat under certain weather conditions (high humidity and mild cold) which are typical of the late Majorcan autumn.
Ingredients and varieties
Sobrassada is made with a choice of pork loin, pork bacon (xuia), minced and mixed with paprika, salt and (in modern times) black pepper. Some makers also add cayenne pepper to the mixture and market it as picant, hot. Then the mixture is put into a pork intestine, and hung from a pole for some weeks until it is cured. The string which is tied around the intestine can be used to differentiate between the hot and dolç (literally "sweet", though in this case meaning "not spicy") varieties, the red or red and white string being the hot one.
Small, thin sobrassadas are called llonganissa, and are made from the small intestine. Bigger and thicker ones are called cular or pultrums, and the largest type are huge pork bladders called bufetes.
Sobrassada outside the Balearic islands
Four geographical areas in the Mediterranean, apart from the Balearic islands, have close links to sobrassada for different reasons:
1.- In colonial Algeria, sobrassada was part of the pied-noir cuisine and extremely popular. The French version was named soubressade. Upon the independence and re-islamisation of the country this pork product became less and less important and can today only be found in continental France in butcher shops run by pied-noirs.
2.- In Catalonia, due to cultural links with the Balearic islands, sobrassada is sometimes found together with other autochthonous pork products. The eastern Pyrenees are known for a mountain version of sobrassada.
3.- The village of Tàrbena, in the province of Alicante, was re-populated after the expulsion of the Moriscos with colonists from Majorca who brought along several traditions from the island, including their own variant of the Catalan language and foods such as the sobrassada, which is still being made there in the same way.
4.- In the island of Sicily, either a predecessor or a contemporary product is found under the name sopressada at least since the 15th century. There is debate over exactly where the product originated.
Short history of sobrassada and Mallorquin penchant for pork
Other pork products typical from the cuisine of Mallorca are camaïot, veria negra and xuia (pancetta).
After centuries of Muslim (non-pork) culture, Mallorca quickly returned to pork consumption in the Middle Age, with the key ingredient paprika added after the discovery of America in the 15th century. Sobrassada is thought to have originated and expanded, as a culinary concept, in the Catalan-controlled Western Mediterranean (Sicily, Balearic Islands, Sardinia) after the 14th century, as different forms of the same product persist in this region still today.
In a traditional Mediterranean diet, containing little meat, as Mallorca had until the 1950s, sobrassada and its affiliated pork sausages were usually the main and exclusive pork meat source for Mallorquins. Larger meat cuts like pork or lamb roasts, pork steaks or beef cuts were largely a festive dish, or restricted to the well-off. Even today dishes such as porcella rostida, a whole roasted suckling pig, are only served on special occasions.

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